Monday, August 3, 2020
Startup Hubs Around the World New York 1. LOCATIONLocated on the eastern coast of the United States, this financial district is home to one of the leading start-up hubs in the world. As the city that never sleeps, New York is more than a tourist attraction. It is a convenient location near the coast of the United States, as well as a travel hub for almost everywhere in the world.For European companies interested in expanding into the United States, New York is a direct flight and is easily accessible. With shorter international and domestic flights, start-up companies can reach investors and employees without additional time zone crunching.A bustling metropolis, New York offers relocating employees a wealth of opportunities to take advantage of outside of work. For the young entrepreneur, working hours can be thought of as waking hours: whenever you are awake, youâre working. This creates an environment where it is completely reasonable to be working on a new coding sequence until 2 a.m. and suddenly realize that you ar e starving. Finding a restaurant open at that time of the morning? Not a problem for the start-up based in New York.The streets in New York are a cross section of cultures and industries and have become rich in potential for start-ups. This climate of diversity lends itself to creativity and innovation unlike any other location. With the wide range of cultures all centrally located around the city, start-ups can draw on the rich heritage of the city to springboard their way to success and appeal to the broader public. In addition, the diverse cultural atmosphere of the city gives a multi-cultural appeal to the developers and programmers who may be moving to New York.Another aspect of location is the process of getting your product into consumerâs hands. As a major hub of the United States, New York city is both an airport terminal and a shipping terminal. This can benefit the start-up that is outsourcing product around the world in large quantities; shipping via barge to China or other factories can be handled easily from the city. This reduces costs, transit time and complications as everything is near the company headquarters.2. TAX INCENTIVESNew initiatives make New York tax incentives increasingly attractive to start-up corporations. Start-Up NY has been touted as the most ambitious growth plan New York has seen. Developing specific tax free zones, the governor of NY has set his sights on an active, evolving start-up market that draws on the resources within the state. Designed to correlate to schools and colleges, the plan allows for a relationship between business and education that is focused on enterprise. The tax free zones are alWith the development of Start-Up NYâs tax free areas, businesses are encouraged to take advantage of the deductions, credits and exemptions the state offers. In an effort to develop and keep businesses, the tax free zone allows businesses to eliminate tax liability when they operate within a specified tax free district. T his incentive applies to organization tax and license fees, commuter transportation taxes, real estate taxes and personal income taxes.Critics of the tax free zones claim that the political posturing that results from these zones is the only real benefit. They criticize the plan as being so stringent and narrow in scope that very few will actually be able to take advantage of them. In addition, they are skeptical that the areas established as tax free zones will be locations that companies will want to operate in. The nay-sayers are vocal in their dismay over what seems to be a lot of big talk with very few actual positive results.Advocates for the plan, however, are hopeful that the new focus on attracting start-ups to the New York area will bring a new surge of companies. It may not be a perfect plan, but is the first in what appears to be a long standing plan to improve the New York landscape with innovation and progress. They are adamant that by offering tax incentives to compan ies, the companies will be more likely to choose the New York area for their location.3. LEGAL INCENTIVESSpecific legal incentives for New Yorkâs start-up hub are not as robust as other areas. The recent Start-Up New York initiative is beginning to change the incentives available but the process can be slow. However, due to the overall importance of the city, NY boasts branches of some of the largest law firms in the country. Having well-qualified legal counsel nearby gives start-up providers the guidance and backing they need to secure investments and funding in a legally binding transaction. Start-ups can choose from some of the largest names in legal counsel to help guide them through the process of developing their company. As more start-ups flock towards New York, the lawyers who have specialized in the start-up regulations will become more commonplace.4. AVAILABILITY OF INVESTORSAs a financial powerhouse, New York has some of the leading Venture Capital firms, angel investor s and other equity investors already in the area â" making it easier to promote the start-up to potential investors. Having a âhome townâ advantage can be huge when considering approaching investors â" they like to feel as though they can keep an eye on their investment easily if it is located within a short cab ride.Another benefit to the New York start-up hub is the convergence of several key areas: fashion, finance, media, and advertising all within the city. This creates an atmosphere where collaboration or key partnerships can easily be formed, increasing the potential for success. The overall importance of innovation in all areas means that there is a wealth of investors who are looking for a diverse portfolio. Venture capital firms are beginning to notice the entrepreneurial atmosphere that is rising in New York and have begun to put their money towards encouraging that growth. Within the last few years, venture investors have put more money into New York start-ups than Silicon Valley. This indicates a growing recognition that there are innovations taking place in the Big Apple that arenât being seen in other places around the world.New York investors are relatively new to the start-up investing world. With that in mind, it is foolish to try to compare the investment strategies and successes of the long-established Silicon Valley with the relatively inexperienced New York market. Most tech start-ups donât begin to truly reach their potential until after they have been working for at least 10 years. New Yorkâs start-up history has not had enough time to fully develop, so the successes are still few. The challenge for New York investors will be to hold onto their investments long enough to see the larger payoff that some of the big Silicon Valley companies have become famous for.Funding Availability in New York 5. AVAILABILITY OF LOCAL RESOURCES AND WORKFORCEThe diversity of New Yorkâs citizenship allows for newly arrived immigrants and comp anies to feel at home. There are a diverse number of cultural opportunities which will help make the company owner and potential employees feel at home in the Big Apple.In addition, the nearby colleges and universities add to the quality of academic resources available for the start-up. This pool of well-educated personnel can improve training opportunities; and provide an ever ready collection of readily available staff or consultants. Established networks among students will extend far beyond the walls of the classroom, as students become employees and then entrepreneurs. The connections that they make can last for years, and can become the potential for collaboration and future jobs.With several recent start-up success stories located in the New York area, web developers are increasingly attracted to the modern city. As an added bonus, while some of the larger tech companies establish offices in the New York area, growing pools of engineers have moved into the area to work. Bro ught in to work at companies like Facebook and Twitter, the developers, programmers and engineers relocate to the Big Apple. As a result, other companies have begun to take advantage of the growing tech workforce. Building on the success of other start-ups, commerce has begun to realize that start-ups can succeed among the high rises.6. SPECIALIZATION When one thinks of New York City, towering skyscrapers, serious businessmen in black suits rushing off to do important financial work and shoppers clutching bags from the largest names in fashion comes to mind. New Yorkâs image does not lend itself to being a start-up destination, despite their heavy financial industry. Boasting a landscape that includes branches of some of the largest companies in the world, it seems as though any company that wishes to succeed eventually comes to New York City. These companies are generally started elsewhere before finally expanding to include a New York branch. Historically known as one of the worst places to start a business, New York is taking steps to change that designation with a plan to attract businesses to the state and generate business revenue. What factors are helping New York edge out the competition in the start-up hub wars? Are there specific indicators to look for that can demonstrate a new king of the start-up hill? © Shutterstock.com | dibrovaIn this article, we look at six essential elements of New York City as any start-up location that must be evaluated: 1) location, 2) tax incentives, 3) legal incentives, 4) availability of investors, 5) local resources workforce, and 6) specialization.1. LOCATIONLocated on the eastern coast of the United States, this financial district is home to one of the leading start-up hubs in the world. As the city that never sleeps, New York is more than a tourist attraction. It is a convenient location near the coast of the United States, as well as a travel hub for almost everywhere in the world.For European companies interested in expanding into the United States, New York is a direct flight and is easily accessible. With shorter international and domestic flights, start-up companies can reach investors and employees without additional time zone crunching.A bustling metropolis, New York offers relocating employees a wealth of opportunities to take advantage of outside of work. For the young entrepreneur, working hours can be thought of as waking hours: whenever you are awake, youâre working. This creates an environment where it is completely reasonable to be working on a new coding sequence until 2 a.m. and suddenly realize that you are starving. Finding a restaurant open at that time of the morning? Not a problem for the start-up based in New York.The streets in New York are a cross section of cultures and industries and have become rich in potential for start-ups. This climate of diversity lends itself to creativity and innovation unlike any other location. With the wide range of cultures all centrally located around the city, start-ups can draw on the rich heritage of the city to springboard their way to success and appeal to the broader public. In addition, the diverse cultural atmosphere of the city gives a multi-cultural appeal to the developers and programmers who may be moving to New York.Another aspect of location is the proces s of getting your product into consumerâs hands. As a major hub of the United States, New York city is both an airport terminal and a shipping terminal. This can benefit the start-up that is outsourcing product around the world in large quantities; shipping via barge to China or other factories can be handled easily from the city. This reduces costs, transit time and complications as everything is near the company headquarters.2. TAX INCENTIVESNew initiatives make New York tax incentives increasingly attractive to start-up corporations. Start-Up NY has been touted as the most ambitious growth plan New York has seen. Developing specific tax free zones, the governor of NY has set his sights on an active, evolving start-up market that draws on the resources within the state. Designed to correlate to schools and colleges, the plan allows for a relationship between business and education that is focused on enterprise. The tax free zones are alWith the development of Start-Up NYâs tax free areas, businesses are encouraged to take advantage of the deductions, credits and exemptions the state offers. In an effort to develop and keep businesses, the tax free zone allows businesses to eliminate tax liability when they operate within a specified tax free district. This incentive applies to organization tax and license fees, commuter transportation taxes, real estate taxes and personal income taxes.Critics of the tax free zones claim that the political posturing that results from these zones is the only real benefit. They criticize the plan as being so stringent and narrow in scope that very few will actually be able to take advantage of them. In addition, they are skeptical that the areas established as tax free zones will be locations that companies will want to operate in. The nay-sayers are vocal in their dismay over what seems to be a lot of big talk with very few actual positive results.Advocates for the plan, however, are hopeful that the new focus on attractin g start-ups to the New York area will bring a new surge of companies. It may not be a perfect plan, but is the first in what appears to be a long standing plan to improve the New York landscape with innovation and progress. They are adamant that by offering tax incentives to companies, the companies will be more likely to choose the New York area for their location.3. LEGAL INCENTIVESSpecific legal incentives for New Yorkâs start-up hub are not as robust as other areas. The recent Start-Up New York initiative is beginning to change the incentives available but the process can be slow. However, due to the overall importance of the city, NY boasts branches of some of the largest law firms in the country. Having well-qualified legal counsel nearby gives start-up providers the guidance and backing they need to secure investments and funding in a legally binding transaction. Start-ups can choose from some of the largest names in legal counsel to help guide them through the process of d eveloping their company. As more start-ups flock towards New York, the lawyers who have specialized in the start-up regulations will become more commonplace.4. AVAILABILITY OF INVESTORSAs a financial powerhouse, New York has some of the leading Venture Capital firms, angel investors and other equity investors already in the area â" making it easier to promote the start-up to potential investors. Having a âhome townâ advantage can be huge when considering approaching investors â" they like to feel as though they can keep an eye on their investment easily if it is located within a short cab ride.Another benefit to the New York start-up hub is the convergence of several key areas: fashion, finance, media, and advertising all within the city. This creates an atmosphere where collaboration or key partnerships can easily be formed, increasing the potential for success. The overall importance of innovation in all areas means that there is a wealth of investors who are looking for a d iverse portfolio. Venture capital firms are beginning to notice the entrepreneurial atmosphere that is rising in New York and have begun to put their money towards encouraging that growth. Within the last few years, venture investors have put more money into New York start-ups than Silicon Valley. This indicates a growing recognition that there are innovations taking place in the Big Apple that arenât being seen in other places around the world.New York investors are relatively new to the start-up investing world. With that in mind, it is foolish to try to compare the investment strategies and successes of the long-established Silicon Valley with the relatively inexperienced New York market. Most tech start-ups donât begin to truly reach their potential until after they have been working for at least 10 years. New Yorkâs start-up history has not had enough time to fully develop, so the successes are still few. The challenge for New York investors will be to hold onto their inv estments long enough to see the larger payoff that some of the big Silicon Valley companies have become famous for.Funding Availability in New York 5. AVAILABILITY OF LOCAL RESOURCES AND WORKFORCEThe diversity of New Yorkâs citizenship allows for newly arrived immigrants and companies to feel at home. There are a diverse number of cultural opportunities which will help make the company owner and potential employees feel at home in the Big Apple.In addition, the nearby colleges and universities add to the quality of academic resources available for the start-up. This pool of well-educated personnel can improve training opportunities; and provide an ever ready collection of readily available staff or consultants. Established networks among students will extend far beyond the walls of the classroom, as students become employees and then entrepreneurs. The connections that they make can last for years, and can become the potential for collaboration and future jobs.With several recent start-up success stories located in the New York area, web developers are increasingly attracted to the modern city. As an added bonus, while some of the larger tech companies establish offices in the New York area, growing pools of engineers have moved into the area to work. Brought in to work at companies like Facebook and Twitter, the developers, programmers and engineers relocate to the Big Apple. As a result, other companies have begun to take advantage of the growing tech workforce. Building on the success of other start-ups, commerce has begun to realize that start-ups can succeed among the high rises.6. SPECIALIZATIONThe diversity of New Yorkâs start-ups make it attractive to a range of industries: social media, mobile services and e-commerce have all found a foothold within in the streets of New York. This creates an environment where collaboration is not only smart, it is easily managed. Start-ups that develop out of existing industries have an advantage when the key p articipants have a familiarity with the benefits and incentives that exist in a location. Shoptiques, an online boutique, got its start in New York because of the fashion industry that has already dominated the area. By combining two great industries: fashion and technology, the founder of Shoptiques was able to capitalize on her pre-existing knowledge of the fashion industry to create a successful start-up launch.Startup New York Key start-ups that can trace their beginning to the fabled New York streets include: Foursquare, Kickstarter, the Muse, Birchbox and BuzzFeed. These start-ups are a cross-section of industries that clearly demonstrates the diversity that New York is faced with. Ranging from a crowd-source funding venture (Kickstarter), a career motivator (the Muse), a subscription beauty products box (Birchbox) and an internet news source (BuzzFeed). It is interesting to note the unique combination of industries that not only begin in New York, but thrive there as well.Unl ike other start-up hubs that seem to focus on a particular industry, New York has not established a clear identity of the types of start-ups most prevalent. Initial users of the new Start-Up NY plan are primarily biotech/medical companies, which perhaps may be an indication of the direction that New York will take as a hub. With a biotech incubator already established, a second-stage growth terminal ready, and a facility for mature companies prepared, New York is strategically positioning itself for future growth.The growing popularity of New York as a start-up hub is due, in part, to the concerted effort that the government of the state is making. By establishing tech start-up as a priority, the full force of the government will be behind the start-up and give them the tools that they need to succeed. The attractive environment that is bursting with available resources, ready-made workforce and a culture that thrives on activity and innovation is key to the continuing development t hat New York is making. Establishing itself as a market for start-ups will take effort, but the payoff is immense. Drawing innovative technology, engineering, programming and other creative endeavors into the New York area will generate an atmosphere where form meets function, and the only limit is what you can conceive.Often, necessity is the mother of invention. In some cases, products and services are developed as a response to a need or a crisis. In the world of start-ups, however, the impetus may simply be a desire to see what is possible. With world-class developers, the possibilities truly are endless. Ideas and products become realities when creativity abounds, without limitations or rules. While it may take twenty to thirty years to fully realize a well-developed start-up hub, the savvy investor knows that good things come to those who wait. The watchful eyes of investors all over the world will be tuned toward New York in the coming years. As it struggles to establish itse lf as a powerhouse in yet another area, it is determined to succeed on all fronts. Knowing how successful NY had been in other areas, one can easily make the prediction that they will once again rule.
Thursday, June 25, 2020
The greatest recent event that God is dead, that the belief in the Christian God has ceased to be believable is cast[ing] its shadows over Europe. For the few, at lease, whose eyes.are strong and sensitive enough for this spectacle What must collapse now that this belief has been undermined [is] our whole European morality.Nietzsche, from The Gay Science: Book V (1887)Dr. Richard Niebuhr writes, in his introduction to Eliots translation of Feuerbachs The Essence of Christianity, that Eliot sought to retain the ethos of Christianity without its faith, its humanism without its theism. In her first full novel, Adam Bede, Eliot succeeds at doing this. By replacing Gods all-seeing eye with a plethora of human eyes, Eliot depicts characters in the close-knit community of Hayslope who dont need God to be good Christians, who can hold their standards without their faith.Eliot begins with the simplistically Christian notion that God can see everything. Adam, our title hero, sings a tun e in chapter one that refers to Gods all-seeing eye, (Eliot 24). Meanwhile, Bessy, a local Hayslope country girl, feels that Jesus [is] close by looking at her, though she cannot see him (Eliot 40). According to this model, a person must act morally otherwise God will know through sight and he will punish her. But, Eliot abandons these sorts of references to an all-seeing God by chapter four in favor of a structure that does not require Gods eye. On the most basic level, Eliot is continually describing the physical eyes of her characters, and reminding us of their presence, although she gives up talking about Gods eye. Adams eyes, for instance, are keen and dark, we are told over and over. Likewise, Hettys eyes are dark, Lisbeths eyes are dim, Mrs. Poysers are an arctic blue-gray, Arthur Donnithornes are notably adjective-less, Seths are confiding and pale, and Dinahs are always gray, and usually mild. Hetty is blatantly contrasted with Dinah through the look of their eyes (E liot 222) just as Adam is with his brother, Seth (Eliot 18). Hardly a page passes in the entire novel where an eye is not mentioned. We are constantly reminded of the characters perpetual watchfulness.Furthermore, Eliot undermines the necessity of Gods authority by directly replacing it with earthly authorities. The eye of Mrs. Poyser (Eliot 172, 496) is one of these physical enforcers of Christian ethics. Mrs. Poyser notes that her servants want somebodys eye on em constant if theyre to be kept to their work (Eliot 450). The human eye is what keeps them set on the work that their alleged God wants them to do. Bartle Massey is another authority as a teacher whose eyes had been glaring at [his students] ominously through his spectacles for a few minutes (Eliot 229). One supposes he has the same influence on them as Poyser on her underlings. The society as a whole is yet a third of these earthly authorities steadfastly passing judgment and keeping control with its all eyes. T he society show its capacity to do this at every public event, including Arthurs birthday celebration, church, the trial, the execution, and the wedding. Eliots characters are, as it were, within the confines of Foucaults panopticon. Everyone has the responsibility to watch everyone else in order to keep the society morally (or at least ethically) intact.Dinah, the novels central heroine, a female Methodist preacher, has a presence which is exactly human, although she, and others, associate her with God. Trying to convince Dinah not to leave Hayslope, her aunt, Mrs. Poyser, tells her that Bessy, a girl Dinah turned against vanity, will no more go on in her new ways without you than a dog ull stand on its hind-legs when theres nobody looking (Eliot 449). Although it is Dinahs stated goal to help her fellows to accept Gods ever-present gaze, all she succeeds at doing is getting them to cower to her authority or the communitys approval. Even when Dinah convinces Hetty to confess to her crime of baby killing to Jesus, Hetty is actually responding to Dinah alone. Hetty kept her eyes on Dinahs face and Dinah felt a deep joy in the first sign that her love was welcomed by the wretched lost one (Eliot 424, emphasis added). Gods eye is not present, but Dinahs human eyes are, and they alone are the catalysts for human repentance and change.Intense eyes follow the transgressive love affair between Arthur and Hetty as well. Hetty feels that Arthurs eyes seemed to touch her (Eliot 106) When trying to avoid falling in love with Hetty, Arthur reasons to himself that he must not see her alone again (Eliot 135), and then, recanting, says that he must see her again (Eliot 136). Here the eyes reveal themselves as active participants, not just passive on-lookers. They have the capacity in and of themselves to transgress physical boundaries and set love in motion. Similarly, they can control behavior and dictate ethical propriety. Eliot also takes advantage of her aud iences attentive eyes in relation to her fictional world. She pulls her reader into the active role of the watcher by prefacing her work with Wordsworths verse, So that ye may have / Clear images before your gladdened eyes (Eliot 7). On the same note, she begins the novel itself, saying that she will show her readers visions (Eliot 17). Immediately, she forces her reader into the omniscient position of God, the one who will know all the text from there until the happy ending. Seemingly as a reminder of this important purpose, the reader is told that while Hetty is peering narcissitically into her mirror, she feels she is being watched by an invisible spectator (Eliot 151). Most superficially, this invisible figure is Hettys ill-suited suitor, Arthur. However, on a more concrete level, she is actually being watched by the reader, who is in the bedroom with her on some level. Most powerfully, Eliot directly addresses her reader with the responsibilities she has in a sort of man ifesto on literature, which she lays out in chapter 17, In Which the Story Pauses a Little. You, she writes, addressing her reader dead on, would be likely to turn a harder, colder eye on the real breathing men and women, who can be chilled by your indifference who can be cheered and helped onward by your brave justice (Eliot 175-6). Her characters, she claims, are reliant on the reader much like a Christian is reliant on Jesus mercy and fairness. Again, the religious is replaced by the secular. Eliot brings her audience into the watching-game, and thereby she morally affects us. If these characters are always watching each other, and we are always watching them, we feel, then, that there is perhaps someone always watching us and that we should behave properly. She imbues her reader with a paranoia that, if the storys moral sticks, will remain. Scenes wherein that which is not supposed to be seen is seen bolsters this feeling that we cannot hide from acting morally (as opposed to being moral) despite the possible absence of the divine. The most forthright example of this is when Adam inadvertently witnesses Arthur kissing Hetty in the woods. Adam watches Arthur approach him from the kiss with eyes in which amazement was fast turning to fierceness (Eliot 286). Although Arthur is successfully avoiding God, he cannot hide from humanity. Adams eyes absorb and judge the event, and then punish him for it with a beating. Little Totty partakes in such an activity alongside Adam a little earlier in the text when she opened her eyes and with her right [arm] caught at the string of brown beads round Hettys neck (Eliot 276). With the act of opening her eyes, Hetty begins the process of revealing to Adam Hettys dishonorable state. Tottys eyes essentially penetrate Hettys dress in spite of Hettys attempt to hide her locket within it. Eliot depicts human eyes seeing within the human breast; a place it seems that only the privileged God should be able to access. The reader, too, is made a spy at the Hall Farm, seeing that which the players dont know she can see. By putting our eyes to the rusty bars of the gate, Eliot secretly tells her reader, we can see the house well enough, and all but the very corners of the grassy enclosure (Eliot 78). The eyes invade space they have not been invited onto, without being seen themselves. They trespass, as Eliot says. This furthers in us the feeling that everything is being watched by judgmental human eyes, whether we know it or not. We integrate ourselves into the story we are reading, says John Goode in his essay on Adam Bede, through the provision of a moral absolute (Goode 35). That is to say, we provide for each other and ourselves the foundation on which socially acceptable behavior, otherwise known as moral behavior, rests.Eliot goes so far as to make quite definite connections between the eyes gaze and doing right. Arthurs eyes are not described with adjectives because he is wishy-washy, and doesnt particularly enforce any moral code on himself when it is necessary. In fact, Eliot describes him resolutely turn[ing] his eyes away from any bad consequence (Eliot 301). Likewise, in the church setting, Eliot points us to the black-eyed youngsters (Eliot 185). They are black-eyed because they havent yet absorbed the Christian morality into their vision and therefore dont yet perpetuate the moral system within which they live. Eliots two primary heroes, Adam and Dinah, the ones who receive the novels awkwardly happy ending, come together ultimately on a hilltop. Adam chose this spot because it was away from all eyes (Eliot 500), and yet the other reason, which he does not give, must be that his eyes and hers are the only ones that can see from there, and they can probably see a good deal of the space below. Eliot places them at a superior vantage point thereby representing their superior moral positions. These righteous humans are sitting on high instead of God. But, it is no Tower of Babble, it is right, for humans must take on the omniscient eye in order to support Eliots notion that, as Niebuhr puts it, she can maintain the ethos of Christianity without its faith.Hetty internalizes the moral import of the eyes by experiencing the curse of seeing Nothing but the place in the wood where Id buried the baby, she cries to Dinah, I see it now! (Eliot 431). The whole community then turns their damning eyes onto Hetty both in the courthouse as she stands like a statue of dull despair (Eliot 413), and as she is being carted out for hanging, they gaze (Eliot 437). It is her own vision, and that of her community, that condemns her. There is no need for Gods classically omniscient eye to intervene.Eliot tells us even more bluntly at one point that she is a proponent of human-divine interchangability. When hearing a human sob, this narrator claims it is no wonder mans religion has so much sorrow in it: no wonder he needs a suffering God (Eliot 34 8). Here human emotions are equated with the invention of religion. Humans created a suffering God so they would feel better. Eliot simply reverses the process in Adam Bede by giving humans their moral eye back. The way Eppie replaces the gold in Silas Marner, so too humans replace God in Bede. The system remains generally the same, only the object/subject shifts. Along the same line, Eliot (lets assume she is the narrator) comically steps away from her tale for a moment and says, One begins to suspect at length that there is no direct correlation between eyelashes and morals (Eliot 154). The fact that this statement is in precise opposition to what I am arguing, and the fact that Eliot says it at all, suggests that it is an admission in negative terms. In Eliots fiction, she is basically admitting, the two can be equated.All these eyes, seeing through the traditional, unquestioned prism of Christianitys morals, reinforce that same morality without the need for an actual bel ief in the all-powerful omniscient eye of God. Essentially, Eliot pulls the cloth (of God) from under the outgrowth of Christian ethical codes with such dexterity that she does not disrupt the system itself.As the author Eliot moves her fictional community seamlessly from theism to agnosticism, so too does she value such a replacement in her own life as Marian. In 1856, just three years before publishing Adam Bede, she speaks of Goethe as eminently the man who helps us to rise to a lofty point of observation, so that we may see things in their relative proportions. Here, we see her maintaining moral absolutism by referring to objectively defined proportions. Eliot replaces the god figure, classically sitting at the lofty point of observation, with people. She doesnt explicitly place Goethe there at all, she says instead that he helps us (humans, that is) to arrive there together. It seems that in Adam Bede she is trying to accomplish the same feat. This is not an essay about perspective, it is an essay about objectivism and absolutism as defined by the collective human eye as opposed to the single omniscient and divine eye.Of course, this analysis leaves me with a glaring question. Why does Eliot hold onto the morality defined by Christianity after surrendering its God? Why doesnt she re-evaluate that structure as well, rather than holding onto it by transferring authority? Why bother dismissing God if the visible fabric remains static? Perhaps shes being pragmatic perhaps she fears anarchy in the wake of a passing God.BibliographyDickens, Charles. Letter to George Eliot on 10 July 1859, in Ed. David Carroll, The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, (1971).Eliot, George. Adam Bede. England: Cox and Wyman, 1994.Ferris, Ina, Realism and the Discord of Ending: The Example of Thackeray, Nineteenth Century Fiction, 38/3 (1983), 289-303.Goode, John. Adam Bede: A Critical Essay, in Ed. Barbara Hardy, Critical Essays on George Eliot , (1970).
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Benjamin Banneker was an African-American astronomer, clockmaker, and publisher who was instrumental in surveying the District of Columbia. He used his interest and knowledge of astronomy to create almanacs that contained information about the motions of the Sun, Moon, and planets.Ã Early Life Benjamin Banneker was born in Maryland on November 9, 1731. His maternal grandmother, Molly Walsh emigrated from England to the colonies as an indentured servant in bondage for seven years. At the end of that time, she bought her own farm near Baltimore along with two other slaves. Later, she freed the slaves and married one of them. Formerly known as Banna Ka, Mollys husband had changed his name to Bannaky. Among their children, they had a daughter named Mary. When Mary Bannaky grew up, she also purchased a slave, Robert, who, like her mother, she later freed and married. Robert and Mary Bannaky were the parents of Benjamin Banneker. Molly used the Bible to teach Marys children to read. Benjamin excelled in his studies and was also interested in music. He eventually learned to play the flute and violin. Later, when a Quaker school opened nearby, Benjamin attended it during the winter. There, he learned to write and gained a basic knowledge of mathematics. His biographers disagree on the amount of formal education he received, some claiming an 8th-grade education, while others doubt he received that much. However, few dispute his intelligence. At the age of 15, Banneker took over the operations for his family farm. His father, Robert Bannaky, had built a series of dams and watercourses for irrigation, and Benjamin enhanced the system to control the water from the springs (known around as Bannaky Springs) that supplied the farms water. At the age of 21, Bannekers life changed when he saw a neighbors pocket watch. (Some say the watch belonged to Josef Levi, a traveling salesman.) He borrowed the watch, took it apart to draw all its pieces, then reassembled it and returned it running to its owner. Banneker then carved large-scale wooden replicas of each piece, calculating the gear assemblies himself. He used the parts to make the first wooden clock in the United States. It continued to work, striking each hour, for more than 40 years. An Interest in Watches and Clock Making: Driven by this fascination, Banneker turned from farming to watch and clock making. One customer was a neighbor named George Ellicott, a surveyor. He was so impressed with his Bannekers work and intelligence, he lent him books on mathematics and astronomy. With this help, Banneker taught himself astronomy and advanced mathematics. Starting about 1773, he turned his attention to both subjects. His study of astronomy enabled him to make the calculations to predict solar and lunar eclipses. His work corrected some errors made by experts of the day. Banneker went on to compile an ephemeris, which became theÃ Benjamin BannekerÃ Almanac. An ephemeris is a listing or table of the positions of celestial objects and where they appear in the sky at given times during a year. The Almanac can included an ephemeris, plus other useful information for sailors and farmers. Bannekers ephemeris also listed tables of tides at various points around the Chesapeake Bay region. He published that work y early from 1791 through 1796 and eventually became known as the Sable Astronomer. In 1791, Banneker sent then Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, a copy of his first almanac along with an eloquent plea for justice for African Americans, calling on the colonists personal experience as slaves of Britain and quoting Jeffersons own words. Jefferson was impressed and sent a copy of the almanac to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris as evidence of the talent of blacks. Bannekers almanac helped convince many that he and other blacks were not intellectually inferior to whites. Also in 1791, Banneker was hired to assist brothers Andrew and Joseph Ellicott as part of a six-man team to help design the new capital city, Washington, DC. This made him the first African-American presidential appointee. In addition to his other work, Banneker published a treatise on bees, did a mathematical study on the cycle of the seventeen-year locust (an insect whose breeding and swarming cycle peaks every seventeen years), and wrote passionately about the anti-slavery movement. Over the years, he played host many distinguished scientists and artists. Although he had predicted his own death at age 70, Benjamin Banneker actually survived another four years. His last walk (accompanied by a friend) came on October 9, 1806. He felt ill and went home to rest on his couch and died. Bannekers memorial still exists at the Westchester Grade School in the Ellicott City/Oella region of Maryland, where Banneker spent his entire life except for the Federal survey. Most of his possessions were lost in a fire set by arsonists after he died, although a journal and some candle molds,Ã a table, and a few other items remained. These remained in the family until the 1990s, when they were purchased and then donated to the Banneker-Douglass Museum in Annapolis. In 1980, the US Postal Service issued a postage stamp in his honor. Edited by Carolyn Collins Petersen.
Monday, May 18, 2020
String theory is a mathematical theory that tries to explain certain phenomena which is not currently explainable under the standard model of quantum physics. The Basics of String Theory At its core, string theory uses a model of one-dimensional strings in place of the particles of quantum physics. These strings, the size of the Planck length (10-35 m), vibrate at specific resonant frequencies. Some recent versions of string theory have predicted that the strings could have a longer length, up to nearly a millimeter in size, which would mean theyre in the realm that experiments could detect them. The formulas that result from string theory predict more than four dimensions (10 or 11 in the most common variants, though one version requires 26 dimensions), but the extra dimensions are curled up within the Planck length. In addition to the strings, string theory contains another type of fundamental object called a brane, which can have many more dimensions. In some braneworld scenarios, our universe is actually stuck inside of a 3-dimensional brane (called a 3-brane). String theory was initially developed in the 1970s in an attempt to explain some inconsistencies with the energy behavior of hadrons and other fundamental particles of physics. As with much of quantum physics, the mathematics that apply to string theory cannot be uniquely solved. Physicists must apply perturbation theory to obtain a series of approximated solutions. Such solutions, of course, include assumptions which may or may not be true. The driving hope behind this work is that it will result in a theory of everything, including a solution to the problem of quantum gravity, and to reconcile quantum physics with general relativity, thus reconciling the fundamental forces of physics. Variants of String Theory The original string theory focused only on boson particles. Superstring theory (short for supersymmetric string theory) incorporates bosons with another particle, fermions, as well as supersymmetry to model gravity. There are five independent superstring theories: Type 1Type IIAType IIBType HOType HE M-Theory: A superstring theory, proposed in 1995, which attempts to consolidate the Type I, Type IIA, Type IIB, Type HO, and Type HE models as variants of the same fundamental physical model. One consequence of the research in string theory is the realization that there is an immense number of possible theories that could be constructed, leading some to question whether this approach will ever actually develop the theory of everything that many researchers originally hoped. Instead, many researchers have adopted a view that they are describing a vast string theory landscape of possible theoretical structures, many of which do not actually describe our universe. Research in String Theory At present, string theory has not successfully made any prediction which is not also explained through an alternative theory. It is neither specifically proven nor falsified, though it has mathematical features which give it great appeal to many physicists. A number of proposed experiments might have the possibility of displaying string effects. The energy required for many such experiments is not currently obtainable, although some are in the realm of possibility in the near future, such as possible observations from black holes. Only time will tell if string theory will be able to take a dominant place in science, beyond inspiring the hearts and minds of many physicists.
Monday, May 11, 2020
Economic policy of every country has different aims that usually include the following ones: sustainable growth and development (increase in output (GDP) growth), price stability (inflation targeting), high employment etc. The policymakers have different tools to manage these issues, primarily by influencing the aggregate demand and supply, such as interest rates, requirements to the bank reserves, tax rates etc. Therefore, this is crucial to understand how these macroeconomic indicators are interconnected, such as for example output and unemployment, unemployment and inflation, and the mechanism of policy actions in each case. Thus, the aim of this essay is to explain how the government should conduct the economic policy in order to achieve the aims, focusing particularly on the unemployment. Actually, the unemployment rate is one of the most crucial macroeconomic indicators of the country. The unemployment rate has different definitions, varying from country to country. The offici al definition of the unemployment, according to the International Labor Organization, is the amount of people that want and ready to work and seeking for the job, and the unemployment rate, accordingly, is the percentage of unemployed in the total labor force (Reuters Financial Glossary). The unemployment rate is crucial for the economy in general, because the higher labor force involved in production, the higher amounts of goods and services a country might produce, in other words employmentShow MoreRelatedMacroeconomic Policies Of National Development1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseconomy defines economic changes that affect household, companies and market. Macro economy can be used to analyze the things that influence policy goals such as economic growth, price stability, employment and the achievement of sustainable balance sheet. Macroeconomic problems occur in every country, both developed countries and developing countries. Therefore, the government created the macroeconomic policies so that national development can work well. Macroeconomic policy is the policy of the governmentRead MoreInternational Trade And The Global Marketplace1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinfluences on economies as many countries are engaged to international trade in order to achieve economic growth, free trade agreement and financial liberalization has contributed to the opening up of world economies and resulted in more international trade. Countries use their comparative advantages to gain a positon in the global marketplace and achieve economic growth (Seyoum 2007). International trade is a critical resource of revenue earning for developing countries. However, the benefits realizedRead MoreInternational Organizations And The United Nations1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInternational organizations create agreements by considering all member states and giving each member state a voice. Constitutional order has three main parts: it has to be binding, it has to be a shared agreement, and there are constrains on every member. Contemporary international organizations reflect a constitutional order because the agreements they make are mutual and followed by all members. The United Nations is a global organization that works to help governments solve problems by findingRead MoreComparing Andrei Shleifer, Amartya Sen, And Jean Dreze1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Andrei Shleifer, Amartya Sen, and Jean DrÃ ¨ze all try to understand what makes countries rich and what makes them poor. Shleifer thinks that what makes a country rich, and subsequently its people rich, is the free market and the economic success that follows it. Alternately, DrÃ ¨ze and Sen believe that what makes a country rich, a whole country with its entire population, is state intervention and regulation of the economy. This differing on opinion is the fundamental difference in the work by ShleiferRead MoreMonetary Fund And The World Bank1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshelping poor countries to either recover from economic collapse or give them debt relief and economic boost from loans they give out to them to impose policies and condition that those poor countries has to implement. These loan conditions and policies structured by these international financial power institutions are geared towards moving resources from the poor countries to the rich western countries. The end result is creating a situation where the poor countries sunk into more economic suicidal conditionRead MoreIssues Of International Political Economy1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageszone countries. Has the euro and its governance brought about economic stability and growth to all the euro zone countries equally? One of the most substantial evidence of European integration is the euro, which is the most widespread currency in 19 out of 28 European countries. Euro is used by 338.6 million people every day. The advantage of the familiar currency is instantly evident to anyone travelling in a foreign country or shopping online on websites based in an additional EU country. TheRead MoreEconomic Policies And Economic Policy1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In every country there s a government and economy. Each counties government helps or tries to help recover, stabilize, and grow the economy. First thing we need to look at is economic policy. Economic policy refer to actions the government makes in the economic field. For example the taxation, the government supply, money supply, interest rates, along with the labor market, and national ownership. Inside the economic policy you will find all sorts of things that help make the policy stand onRead MoreEconomic Policies And Economic Policy1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In every country there s a government and economy. Each counties government helps or tries to help recover, stabilize, and grow the economy. First thing we need to look at is economic policy. Economic policy refer to actions the government makes in the economic field. For example the taxation, the government supply, money supply, interest rates, along with the labor market, and national ownership. Inside the economic policy you will find all sorts of things that help make the policy stand onRead MoreInternational Monetary Fund And The World Bank1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshelping poor countries to either recover from economic collapse or give them debt relief and economic boost from loans they give out to them to impose policies and condition that those poor countries has to implement. These loan conditions and policies structured by these international financial power institutions are geared towards moving resources from the poor countries to the rich western coun tries. The end result is creating a situation where the poor countries sunk into more economic suicidal conditionRead MoreThe European Union s Convergence Criterias : Advantage Or Disadvantage?1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesor Disadvantage? This study analyses the extent to which the Economic and Monetary Union of the European UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s convergence criterias have an influence on the fiscal policy in the member countries, and if there is connection, if this connection is positive or negative for each member state. It will look on the question if it is possible to unite so many different countries under one union, and if you can do this, while the countries still are still sovereign. This research will be carried out through
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The state of California is currently suffering from a state deficit so great it would seem wise to restructure the death penalty as it stands now rather than cut education programs and jobs. California is a state which supports capital punishment; it is also a state that very rarely executes it death row inmates. In the last several years, CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s public educations system has taken on enormous budget cuts due to the state revenue crisis. As political leaders gather in the senate and review the gravity of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, political leaders should examine how restructuring the death penalty and implementing life without parole would be beneficial for the state and those residing within the state itself. Utilizing the death penaltyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦courses, summer school, advanced placement, special education, and other programs will be eliminated (Martinez, 2009). Not only do these cuts have an effect on K-12, they also encumber community colleges, state universities, and state colleges. At the college level tuition prices continue to climb, class availability declines, limits on new enrollments, and cutting educators. In January of 2011, Governor Jerry Brown of California proposed his budget cuts and state universities would be taking another cut of $1 billion, leaving alone elementary and secondary schools (Christie, 2011). While politicians stress education is important to improve the quality of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, they also illustrate it is expendable. Upon further research into the California budget cuts, Democratic state senators are pushing through an $811 million cut from the prisonsÃ¢â¬â¢ healthcare budget. According to the article this cut is more than half of the medical budget. They also mentioned California could save another $182 million if the governor would commute the sentences of illegal immigrants and deport them (Goldmacher, 2010). Another positive turn in the state correction policy which focuses on Cali forniaÃ¢â¬â¢s overcrowding issue is, beginning October 1st of this year, Ã¢â¬Å"counties will assume responsibility for Ã¢â¬Å"low-levelÃ¢â¬ criminal offendersÃ¢â¬ (Graves,Show MoreRelatedImproving The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act 20101206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshealthcare service providers across the globe. However, in Liberia, citizens have to use their money to acquire sufficient healthcare services thus demonstrating that lack of money leads to lack of healthcare services. This subsequently leads to increased death which in real sense can be curbed. Health is a social welfare aspect since it focuses on the well-being of all individuals. Analysis of the Act The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), is commonly known as the Obama Care or the AffordableRead MoreCalifornia Prison System: Significant Budgetary Change and the Results of Those Changes2178 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCalifornia Prison System: Significant Budgetary Change and The Results of Those Changes Objective The objective of this work is to examine the policy and political processes that led to the decision to make a significant budgetary change and what the result of those changes are. In addition this work will identify economic, social and cultural influences on that change and identify the interaction among the federal, state, and municipal levels with regard to the program. This work will examineRead MoreBusiness Strategy of Allergan Inc2426 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesareas of specialty where the needs that have not been met are significant (Allergan Inc., 2010: p. 28). History Allergan was founded in California by Gavin S. 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Marketing is being blamed for creating materialism in society and also for creating unnecessary demand for Products and Services, which the customer would not have asked for. It is because of marketing that the suppressed desires of the materialistic world take over the moral man and loads into being a hedonist.But people also feel that marketing is responsible for what has happened to the world over the years and what will happen in the future. We will write a custom essay sample on Non-Profit Marketing- Problems and Future Challenges or any similar topic only for you Order Now People belonging to their school of thought are of the opinion that marketing creates surplus in the form of profit and profit making organization in turn, spend their returns on designing and development product and services, which enhanced the standard of living of people and deliver desired value to consumers.The latter school is guided by Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s principles of Ã¢â¬ËInvisible Hand: Both the schools of thought try to rationalize the existence of marketing as an economic process, either to create and distribute value or to deliver value to consumers. The scope of business was confined to economic transactions between the producer and marketers. Though each of them part of the social Institutions and operated under social framework and structure, it was realized very late that marketing can also be used to address social issues.In a traditional sense, marketing is broadly defined as process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of Ideas products and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. A broader definition of marketing delved into the process of social exchange in which both producers and marketers looked into the effects of product conception development, design, distribution and delivery of products from social point of view.Marketers also started viewing marketing tools and strategy as vehicles for application in the context of non-business enterprises like government, public sector and charities. Here onwards marketing was looked as a change vehicle and potent weapon for bringing desired effects on responsible corporate social behavior use of marketing tools in the social context started in the middle of the last century when organization with and without profit motives started mass campaigns for a cause or an idea.A successful social information campaign should have a high level of monopoly so that there should not be any contradicting messages to the objective of the campaign. However, many of the social campaigns in a free society have complementary or alternate campaign, which do not allow them to have certain level of monopoly. Let us take an example of an anti-smoking campaign. Though the message, Ã¢â¬Å"smoking causes cancerÃ¢â¬ is evident everywhere and firms marketing tobacco-related products mention this line over their products, but there are campaigns on cigarettes and liquor that promote lifestyle patterns.Mass and information-oriented campaigns depend on the favorable public attitude. Pre-existing attitudes are easier to reinforce than to change. Non Ã¢â¬â Business Marketing The Non- business Marketing involves marketing activities carried out by individuals and organizations to achieves some goals other than normal business goals explained in the form of returns on investments, growth or increase in the profit. We can classify non Ã¢â¬âbusiness marketing as social marketing and non Ã¢â¬â profit marketing Types of Non-Business Marketing Social Marketing Concept for Non-Profit Organization [NPO]Non-profit organizations work the motto of sub serving social interests. They may or may not charge for the services offered. The defined principal of social marketing makes it essential that the organizations where the conceptualization process is to switch on place social interests at the top of the agenda. The policy and strategic decisions of non-profit organizations while conceptualizing marketing focuses on satisfaction of consumers irrespective of the fact that they pay for the services offered or are offered free of cost services .Social marketing is an activity of the non-profit organization. We find social marketing employing the use of the marketing concept in an effort to persuade consumers to accept social ideas beneficial to society at large. These organizations vary from the trade and professional associations to community, national and international organizations. We find non-profit organization dealing with two basic market segments Ã¢â¬â Donors and Clients. They subscribe to the objectives that cannot be measured in financial terms. They are concerned with the people, places and ideas as well as product and services.The donors may or may not necessarily receive any products to note services in exchange for donations/contributions. It is also significant that non-profit organizations offer products/services to those in need and even may not be able to absorb the cost of the product/services. For example the services offered by an educational and health institutions occupy a place of outstanding significance and it is against this background that citizens of a country have a right users of services canÃ¢â¬â¢t be uniform and therefore they are supposed to work with the motto of serving the society without making profit.Because we find these services , of late , depending upon the supporting infrastructural facilities known as inputs, these service institutions engaged in offering the aid have a to generate surpluses so that the expansion, development, modernization programmes are practiced to activate the proces s of qualitative Ã¢â¬âcum- quantitative transformation. It is in this context that we find these institutions working as a non-profit organization. More over we canÃ¢â¬â¢t neglect the instrumentally of health services for the survival and growth of human beings. The basic medical aid is considered to be a fundamental right of all citizens of the country. It is but natural that all segments of society are not in a position to afford the medical services if we find hospitals making profits. Of course, they need time honored development which requires infrastructural support. In other hand it is responsibility of non-profit organizations and the governments create awareness on blind beliefs, safe sex, cotangential diseases and social evils. Social organizations bear the responsibility of regulating the government policies, these institutions are come forward and safeguard the social interest.They are extended multi-dimensional support through different categories of organizations for that very purpose. If they start making profits, the social interests would not be protected. Thus, we find Social Welfare Organizations is working as a Non-Profit Organizations because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a legitimate right to make profit. Non- Profit Organizations- Marketing [NPO-Marketing] We are well aware of instrumentality of non-profit organizations in sub serving social interests. This draws our attention on the professional excellence of people managing such organization.Because we find marketing a managerial process, it is essential that professional managing the affairs is made aware of the positive contribution of nonprofit organizations and develop marketing resources in the face of evolving changes. The formulation of a sound marketing mix becomes significant when we think of conceptualizing and implementing modern marketing principles in non-profit organizations. A professionally sound manager bears the efficiency of developing marketing resources in tune with the changing levels of expectations and therefore the task of satisfying the users become easier.W e also find marketing a social process to be more specific while managing the non-profit organizations. It is right to mention that social marketing governs marketing of non-profit organizations because policy decision makers are supposed to formulate such a policy as to safeguard social interests. The professionals responsible for conceptualization and implementation bear the responsibility of formulating a strategy opening new vistas for social transformation.The marketers, while promoting the interests of users, need to make sure that directly or indirectly, the policies or strategies are not to obstruct the process of social welfare. Of course they also need to protect organizational interests because we canÃ¢â¬â¢t think of raising the contributions of non-profit organization to the process of social transformation unless they are financially sound. So, it is essential that marketers managing the affairs are well aware of the avenues for the mobilization of financial resources.EXISTANCE PROBLEMS BEFORE NON-PROFIT SECTOR A majority of the non-profit organizations are today facing image problems of high magnitude. They are facing the problem of professional deficiency. Financial crunch has made them potentially insolvent. The infrastructural constraints, managerial deficiency, lack of dedicated and committed people, decreasing contributions towards social transformation, increasing domination of social climbers, increasing insensitivity among different segments of society, large scale misuse of funds have fuelled the process of egeneration and the situations are found explosive. We find different types of non-profit organizations, viz. , organizations such as Religious, Social Cultural, Knowledge, Protective, and Philanthropic, Political and Social today facing critical problems, not only in India but also in the globe. While we realize the outstanding contributions of non-profit organizations in the welfare activities, we find them in poor condition. The management legends feel that whatever problems we notice can be resolved if professionals take part in the innovation process.They strongly advocate in favors of developing the non-business secto r with the help of world-class professionals. As of today, the multi-faceted challenges have made them potentially weak. 1. Problem of Professional Deficiency Professional excellence will help in bringing the derailed systems back on its track. Of late most of the non-profit organizations face the problem of managerial deficiency. Financial resources are inadequate and whatever is generated is being mismanaged and misused. The traditionally managed units are facing strategically and tactical problems.They are controlled and dominated by social climbers. Bureaucrats dominate the management and control processes with ulterior motives and mission. Virtually a majority of them are at a collapsing stage needing a special care of the professionals. The world class professionals may contribute significantly to the development processes and the non-profit organizations may witness qualitative improvements. 2. Infrastructural constraints The non-profit organizations have been facing the problem of infrastructural constraints. Since they are not making profits, the infrastructural facilities are minimal.The government or infrastructural industries do not extend to them adequate support. Of late, infrastructural facilities have been playing a lead role in improving the quality of services but due to inadequacy of infrastructure, they find it difficult to generate funds. This naturally has adversely affected the quality of their services and aggravating the image problem. They are unable to offer even key core services. 3. Lack of dedicated and committed people A majority of the non-profit organizations are facing the problem of nadequacy of quality people when they are not professionally sound, how we can expect from them personal commitment and value orientation. The development is a natural phenomenon. Education and training facilities should be of world class otherwise there can be no question of making available to the various sectors quality people without which all out efforts prove to be the effective. An organization dominated by non-performers canÃ¢â¬â¢t survive. The NPOs, of course, do not realize the instrumentality of quality people in the process of qualitative or quantitative transformation. 4.Increasing domination of social climbers It is unfortunate that social climbers are dominating the management and control of a majority of the non-profit organizations. If professionals replace social climbers the present and future of an organization can be positive. Degeneration in the working of political organizations has led to this sorry state. The mafias, antisocial elements, criminals have started handling the political organizations who are responsible for formulating sound policies. The policy and strategic decisions made by the anti-social elements have thrown the organizations in the reverse gear.Political parties, non-government organizations, trade unions, educational institutions and the police department have failed in the discharge of their duties since they are dominated by the vested interests like social climbers and mafias. 5. Increasing insensitivity among masses The most significant reason aggravating the magnitude of the problem is increasing in sensitivity among different segments of the society. Nobody considers it significant to perceive the problems correctly. All of us find it difficult to confront the mafias and anti-social elements. So, they are dominating a majority of the organizations. How we can forecast the future of non-profit organizations. Non-profit organization can contribute substantially to the process of social welfare, if masses are sensitive to the issues as otherwise all the development processes will receive only Luke-warm or even negative response. Mass-participation is an effective prescription to resolve the problems of the society. 6. Large-scale misuse of funds Willingly or unwillingly, we have to accept that a majority of the non-profit organizations are involved in promoting misuse of funds. This is because they are dominated by the social climbers.Fraudulent and unfair practices, unregulated, unproductive expenses are aggravating the problem of financial crunch which is instrumental in the formation of a vicious circle. Since they misuse funds, the donors and potential donors are reluctant to come forward with donations. The mobilization of donors is now complicated and the most important reason is the rampant misuse of funds by the Non-profit Organizations. 7. Decreasing contributions to the society A number of non-profit organizations have not made any significant contributions to the development process.The task of social transformation is their responsibility but they are not to increase their contributions. This has made it difficult for them to get public recognition. Contribution of an individual or an organization is closely related to their potentials and if they are potentially bankrupt, we cannot expect anything concrete from them. This problem indicates that the non-profit or non-business sector is facing numerous problems. We find different types of NPOs and in the Indian context by and large most of them are sailing in the same boat.In the coming years, the magnitude of problem is likely to aggregate because nobody seems interested in resolving the issues. The non-profit organizations thus need an effective prescription, based on a big push theory, in which aggressive marketing practices can be effective. Since it is a social problem, social participation is a must. Mass-participation for mass-welfare will be helpful in different ways. FUTURE CHLENGES OF NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS [NPOs] IN INDIA NPOs are facing several problems and this delays their redressed are and even there is no bright future. In the Indian context where the people are depending on the contributions of non-profit organizations, rational solutions alone can improve their functioning. Against this background, the non-profit organizations should resort to innovative marketing practices. If we look into some of the important non-profit organizations, their performance results are very disappointing. ?Non-Government Organizations [NGOs] What Do Non-governmental Organizations Do? Nongovernmental organizations are one group of players who are active in the efforts of international development and increasing the welfare of poor people in poor countries.Nongovernmental organizations are largely staffed by altruistic employees and volunteers working towards ideological, rather than financial, ends. Their founders are often intense, creative individuals who sometimes come up with a new product to deliver or a better way to deliver existing goods and services. They are funded by donors, many of them poor or anonymous. Yet these attributes should not be unfamiliar to economists. Development NGOs, like domestic nonprofits, can be understood in the framework of not-for-profit contracting.It is easy to conjure up a glowing vision of how the efforts of NGOs could focus on problem solving without getting bogged down in corruption or bureaucracy. But the strengths of the NGO model have some corresponding weaknessesÃ¢â¬âin agenda setting, decision making, and resource allocation. We highlight three factors in explaining the increased presence of NGOs in the last few decades: a trend towards more outsourcing of government services; new ventures by would-be not-for-profit Ã¢â¬Å"entrepreneursÃ¢â¬ ; and the increasing professionalization of existing NGOs.The prime responsibility of a government is to promote social welfare so that weaker segment and neglected region of the country get an opportunity to develop; but in the large and high populated courtiers it is not possible to the government to look a fter all the sections of the society and the government endorsed some of the welfare programes to the trusted and registered NGOs. In India, we observed that the large numbers of NGOs are involving different typeÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare programmes in different areas in the country. The objective of any mission is to promote social interests by offering a number of services to various segments of society in the country. In this process, they get financial aid and other incentives from government, foreign donors, international and national agencies. Of late, there is negative trend since a majority of the NGOs work with different motives. The domination of social climbers in according and approving grants has virtually changed the scenario. A good number of international and national NGOs i. e.UNDP, CARE-India, World Vision, Action Aid, Plan International, YMCA, CHAI, States Lively Hood Projects, RASS-Tirupathi, ARTIC-Srikakulam, THREAD-Orissa, BASIX-Hyderabad, Ajim Preamjee Foundation and BCT-Visakhapatnam only exist on papers. With the support of political leaders and bureaucrats, they succeed in transforming even the profit-making bodies in the NGOs. The recent report of CAPART bears testimony to this almost all the states, the NGOs have proved to be liability because except a very few cases, almost all of them are engaged in maturing malpractices.The unfair practices promoted by the social climbers and a few the bureaucrats lead to unhealthy development. The sanction and approval of the projects are seldom based on the potentials of persons to promote and manage the project but on the pressure and influence they can wield. No one is opposed to the development of NGOs since this help the downtrodden communities, women Child, HIV/AIDS and neglected regions; but the unfair practices should be eliminated. Against this background, there are cases in favor of conceptualizing social marketing by the NGOs.The NGOs have no legal right to make profits. Therefore, the professionals, with innovative marketing practices, should try to improve their working conditions so that they can contribute significantly to the development process and succeed in removing the image problem. The marketing professionals involved in the process will be able to achieve qualitative improvements with the help of an innovative service mix. Currently, the NGOs are facing numerous problems.The increasing influence of social climbers and wrong people in the power corridors should be minimized and this is possible only when we assign due weight age to the approval and sanction process. The professionals, policy makers, promoters, social reformist and activists have to determine the priority areas for future success. ?Educational Institutions In the category of non-profit organizations, we find educational institutions playing an outstanding role. At almost all the levels, educational institutions experience numerous problems. The state policy makers should herefore think over the problem on a priority basis. At the primary, secondary and higher levels, the educational institutions are in a depleted condition. How can we talk about the government managed institutions when a majority of the private institutions present a very gloomy picture? On the one hand, there is a change in the education system because in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s conditions, expensive infrastructural facilities play an important role in improving the quality of education but because of paucity of fund, they find it is difficult to develop even the basic infrastructural facilities.The libraries, labs, supporting infrastructural facilities and the quality of faculty play an important role in improving the quality of education, but a majority of the government managed educational institutions find it difficult to promote the quality of their service mix, party, on account of financial crunch and partly because of professional deficiency. With an i ncreasing pressure of population, the demand is increasing. The users and potential users have high expectations since they witness their counterparts elsewhere in the world available of world class educational facilities which are denied to them.Weaker sections of the society and the illiterate segments need educational assistance as they cannot afford the expensive educational facilities offered by some of the privately managed schools and colleges. The universities also present the same picture. Right from the primary to the higher, almost all the centers are in a poor condition and two important reasons obstructing them are inadequacy of finance and lack of professional excellence. The syllabi of the traditionally managed educational institutions are not in tune with the emerging trends and evolving developments.There is no corresponding relation between the formal and informal education, leading to a number of allied problems. The public fail to get informal education and this obstructs the process of developing quality people. The limited number of people getting education in the world class institutions may be professionally sound but a majority of them lack informal education. They are totally unaware of traffic and civic sense and aesthetic values which keep them ignorant of work culture, conviction and commitment. So, it is necessary that educational institutions in general make ensure that both the streams of imparting educational assistance, formal and informal, are given due importance. A majority of the problems are due to inadequacy of finance and the process of mobilization of financial resources is difficult. The image problem is obstructing their professionalized efforts. They find it difficult to raise the fee structure and the donors and potential donors are disinterested in their problems. The grants from government or other agencies have shrunk.Thus they are facing a number of problems on the financial front. There appears to be no way for an improvement in their financial position. It is against this background that we recommend the urgency of conceptualizing social marketing principles by these educational institutions. Professionalize services open the doors for multi-dimensional improvements. The marketing professionals using innovative marketing strategy will be able to improve their position. Of late there has been an attitudinal change as the parents in general are quite interested in quality education.In a majority of the cases they prefer to avail of quality services even if the fee structure is high. Of late expenditure on education is considered a productive investment and this has led to a qualitative transformation. Financial institutions and commercial banks are now evincing interest in resolving the problems of the weaker sections of the society who are not unable to afford expensive quality services. Where the educational institutions are performing well and playing a positive role in the development of quality people, it is quite natural that people develop a positive attitude towards them.This will also motivate the donors and potential donors since they witness productive use of their money. This broadens the avenues for the mobilization of financial resources. Since they have been making positive contributions to the process of development, the government would also evince interest in providing adequate grants. Then the social welfare organizations too would come forward to solve their financial problems. The marketing professionals, with the help of a sound service mix, will be successful in improving the quality of the core and peripheral services.The core services can help them in regaining the lost image, while the peripheral services will add additional attractions to their service-mix. When the educational institutions find themselves financially sound, development requirements will be conveniently fulfilled. The marketing professionals will find it easier to promote since they have made positive contributions. The public will become aware of the outstanding performance of the educational institutions leading to a better mage. The fee structure should be made optimal to improve the financial health of the educational institutions. The users will not hesitate to invest because they find justifications for the same. The infrastructural facilities can be enriched and the development of faculty would get due attention Thus, the marketing professionals can play a positive role and the educational institutions would emerge as an industry contributing significantly to the process of developing quality people.The mission will then be achieved since the vision has changed. The organizational goals of improving the quality, satisfying the users, developing the educational institution and increasing the number of satisfied group of users can conveniently be accomplished with the removal of image problem and the educational institutions will start contributing significantly to the process of human capital formation vis-a-vis socio-economic transformation. ConclusionTo strengthening the Non-profit/Not-for-Profit/NGOs sector through a radical restructuring of the government machinery, a radical change in the prevailing mindset of policy makers and corporative giants and a radical reallocation of resources in order to make the people themselves the principal authors of their own future. They must be provided easy access to economic advantages they frequently are not entitled to benefit. They must not be treated as beggars/slavers and dependent downtrodden segments of society but as equal partners.Such a dramatic change requires a vigorous, broad-based parti cipatory dialogue and committed leadership- leadership with clear vision and daunting courage.References: 1. Marketing Management Ã¢â¬âSecond Edition-Tapan K Panda-Excel Books, New Delhi 2. Marketing Non-Profit Organizations Ã¢â¬âFirst Edition- S. M. Jha-Himalaya Publishing, Mumbai 3. Educational Marketing- Services Marketing -2002- S. M. Jha-Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai 4. Marketing for Non-Profit Organizations- 2004-P. kotler-PHI 5. CAPART Reporting Ã¢â¬â Floating NGO is Good Business-TOI/23/10/01 How to cite Non-Profit Marketing- Problems and Future Challenges, Papers